Yet another reading of the tension in the Strait of Hormuz is possible. Iran have threatened to close of the Strait of Hormuz on multiple occasions, most notably in 2008, 2012, 2018 and 2019. Le président mauritanien, Ould Abdelaziz s’est attaqué au pouvoir en place du Qatar, en déclarant que ce pays a détruit les peuples et les pays arabes, en les infestant de terroristes et de terrorisme.  Saddam Hussein's aim in attacking Iranian shipping was, among other things, to provoke the Iranians to retaliate with extreme measures, such as closing the Strait of Hormuz to all maritime traffic, thereby bringing American intervention. L’équipage de l’« USS Vincennes » avait affirmé avoir pris l’Airbus pour un chasseur iranien animé d’intentions hostiles. "Iran threatens to block Strait of Hormuz over US oil sanctions". According to a 2012 article in The Christian Science Monitor, it simulated an attempt by Iran to close the strait. The strait is about 90 nautical miles (167 km) long, with a width varying from about 52 nautical miles (96 km) to 21 nautical miles (39 km). Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. Iran subsequently denied the accusations, calling the incident a false-flag attack. This was the first visit by a Prime Minister of Japan in 40 years. "Iran's Threats, The Strait of Hormuz, and Oil Markets: In Brief". Gause, F. Gregory. Le contenu de ce site est le fruit du travail de l'ensemble d'une rédaction qui oeuvre chaque jour à vous apporter une information de qualité, fiable, complète, et d'une équipe web qui vous propose des services innovants. It is widely acknowledged,[weasel words] that even a partial closure of the Strait would wreak havoc on the global oil markets and pose a severe threat to energy security. Il est parsemé d’îles désertiques ou peu habitées, mais d’une grande importance stratégique : les îles iraniennes d’Ormuz, et celles de Qeshm et de Larak, face à la rive iranienne de Bandar Abbas. "Iran will not repeat its warning...the enemy's carrier has been moved to the Gulf of Oman because of our drill. The coastal state is limited in its powers to prevent passage: 1) if threat or actual use of force against its sovereignty, its territorial integrity, or its political independence; or 2) the vessel in any other way violates the principles of international law such as embodied in the Charter of the United Nations.. On 14 January 2008, U.S. Navy officials appeared to contradict the Pentagon version of the 16 January event, in which the Pentagon had reported that U.S. vessels had almost fired on approaching Iranian boats. , On 3 January 2012, Iran threatened to take action if the U.S. Navy moves an aircraft carrier back into the Persian Gulf. Upon ratifying UNCLOS in August 1989, Oman submitted declarations confirming its 1981 royal decree that only innocent passage is permitted through its territorial sea. ( Comme pour les armes chimiques fabriqués par les Irakiens). Ould Abdelaziz a comparé le Qatar et ce qu’il a fait aux pays arabes à l’Allemagne Nazie et à ce qu’elle a occasionnée aux pays européens. Ne pas oublier que les USA sont auto-producteur de 80% de leur consommation de pétrole, ils sont plus gros producteur que l Arabie Saoudite et seront autosuffisants dans quelques années. Ainsi, le pétrole léger produit par les Etats-Unis n’est pas un substitut aux bruts lourds du Moyen-Orient. To reduce the risk of collision, ships moving through the Strait follow a Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS): inbound ships use one lane, outbound ships another, each lane being two miles wide. International Security, 2008. He indicated that tensions involving the Strait of Hormuz are leading those currently dependent on shipments from the Persian Gulf to find alternative shipping capabilities. The assumptions and results were controversial. In the article, Iran's strategy beats the materially superior US armed forces. Afin de nous permettre de conserver notre pérennité économique, Des visiteurs dans le détroit d’Ormuz, au large de Bandar Abbas (Iran), le 29 avril 2019. Le 12 août 2012, il entre en collision avec le pétrolier japonais MV Otowasan dans le détroit d'Ormuz. "It was shore-to-shore", said one U.S. official describing the launch, who like the others requested anonymity to discuss sensitive information. ", In May 2012, a learned article concluded that both the UNCLOS and the 1958 Convention on the High Seas would be violated if Iran followed through on its threat to block passage through the Straits of vessels such as oil tankers, and that the act of passage bears no relation in law to the imposition of economic sanctions. It followed President Trump’s open endorsement, during his recent visit to the archipelago, of Mr Abe's willingness … L’Iran a averti vendredi 21 juin qu’il défendrait son territoire contre d’éventuelles représailles des Etats-Unis, tandis que les compagnies aériennes KLM, Qantas, Singapore Airlines et Malaysia Airlines décidaient d’éviter désormais le survol du détroit d’Ormuz. It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points. Nevertheless, Iran continued to discuss the impact of shutting the Strait on world oil markets, saying that any disruption of supply would cause a shock to markets that "no country" could manage. That afternoon, U.S. secretary of state Mike Pompeo issued a statement accusing Iran of the attacks. A senior member of Iran's parliament said that the Islamic Republic would close the entry point to the Persian Gulf if new sanctions block its oil exports. Point de passage stratégique : lieu de circulation important pour les différents acteurs en jeu. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy, 2019, p. 7-24. , On 9 January 2012, Iranian Defense Minister Ahmad Vahidi denied that Iran had ever claimed that it would close the Strait of Hormuz, saying that "the Islamic Republic of Iran is the most important provider of security in the strait... if one threatens the security of the Persian Gulf, then all are threatened. , In July 2018, Iran again made threats to close the strait. The court ruling allegedly ordered a fine of $3.6 million.  A U.S. Fifth Fleet spokeswoman said in response that the Fleet was "always ready to counter malevolent actions", whilst Admiral Habibollah Sayyari of the Iranian navy claimed that cutting off oil shipments would be "easy". The battle, dubbed Operation Praying Mantis by the U.S., was launched in retaliation for the USS Samuel B. Roberts striking a mine laid in the channel by Iran on 14 April. Again, this action would be a risk to energy-security, and the steady flow of oil through the strait. These small attack crafts can be armed with machine guns, torpedoes and anti-ship missiles. Insight Turkey, 2019, p. 183-214. Même si c’était exagéré, cela avait un sens à l’époque. , In August 2018, Iran test-fired a ballistic missile for the first time in 2018. In the same article, Suzanne Maloney, an Iran expert at the Brookings Institution, said, "The expectation is that the U.S. military could address any Iranian threat relatively quickly. , In July 2012, the UAE began using the new Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline from the Habshan fields in Abu Dhabi to the Fujairah oil terminal on the Gulf of Oman, effectively bypassing the Strait of Hormuz. Ould Abdelaziz a expliqué que la Mauritanie avait rompu, il y quelques mois, ses relations diplomatiques avec l’Emirat, avant de les rétablir, à cause des nombreux intérêts économiques en jeu. Entre l'Iran et les États-Unis, la guerre des nerfs se poursuit 01:38. , • A significant fleet of small boats and manpower available, which can be used to manoeuvre around larger vessels in swarming (military) tactics. En avril 2015 encore, des bateaux des gardiens de la révolution avaient arraisonné dans le détroit d’Ormuz un porte-conteneurs des îles Marshall. 0. Gresh, Geoffrey. Depuis l’arrivée du président Trump au pouvoir, la tension y est à son comble.  A key interest to the U.S. in the Persian Gulf, is the free flow of oil and natural gas through the Strait of Hormuz. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز Maḍīq Hurmuz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.It provides the only sea passage from the Persian Gulf to the open ocean and is one of the world's most strategically important choke points.  The Habshan – Fujairah route secures the UAE's energy security and has the advantage of being a ground oil pipeline transportation which is considered the cheapest form of oil transportation and also reduces insurance costs as oil tankers would no longer enter the Persian Gulf. Détroit d’Ormuz : « Le monde entier a peur des sanctions américaines et de Trump » - Duration: 36:50. Les récentes attaques de tankers en mer d’Oman puis l’épisode du drone américain abattu attisent le spectre de perturbations significatives du trafic et de déstabilisation du marché pétrolier : le cours du baril de WTI s’est ainsi envolé de quelque 6 % jeudi à New York. If they commit such a stupidity, Tel Aviv and U.S. shipping in the Persian Gulf will be Iran's first targets and they will be burned.". One U.S. carrier battle group from Japan would complement the two which are already in the Persian Gulf, for a total of five battle groups, not including the submarines. Jodocus Hondius labels the Strait Basora fretum ("Strait of Basra") on his 1606 map of the Ottoman Empire. This site is on a small island on the peak of Musandam Governorate. The opening to the Persian Gulf was described, but not given a name, in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st-century mariner's guide: At the upper end of these Calaei islands is a range of mountains called Calon, and there follows not far beyond, the mouth of the Persian Gulf, where there is much diving for the pearl-mussel. Naval Projection and the Strait of Hormuz". , Aljazeera quoted Major-General Mohammad Baqeri of the Iranian Armed Forces, stating "We are not after closing the Strait of Hormuz but if the hostility of the enemies increases, we will be able to do so". The collision, which slightly injured 15 sailors aboard Hartford, ruptured a fuel tank aboard New Orleans, spilling 25,000 US gallons (95 m3) of marine diesel fuel. , In December 2011, Iran's navy began a ten-day exercise in international waters along the strait. At the upper end of this gulf there is a market-town designated by law called Apologus, situated near Charaex Spasini and the River Euphrates.  In July 1972, Oman also expanded its territorial sea to 12 nautical miles (22 km) by decree. The United States and the Middle East". , A third of the world's liquefied natural gas and almost 25% of total global oil consumption passes through the strait, making it a highly important strategic location for international trade.. The lanes are separated by a two-mile-wide "median".. "Iran's Threat to the Strait of Hormuz: A Realist Assessment". As of 11 August 2008, more than 40 U.S. and allied ships reportedly were en route to the Strait of Hormuz. If Iran were to follow through on its threats to completely or partially close of the Strait, one of the world’s most strategically important maritime choke points, the most effective way would be through the use of its anti-access/area-denial capabilities. Vidéo - Depuis que deux pétroliers ont été attaqués au milieu du détroit d’Ormuz, le 13 juin, la tension monte entre l’Iran et les Etats-Unis. He stated that Saudi Arabia was considering building new pipelines to Oman and Yemen, and that Iraq might revive the disused Iraq–Syria pipeline to ship crude to the Mediterranean. Policy Focus, 2008. , A 2008 article in International Security contended that Iran could seal off or impede traffic in the Strait for a month, and an attempt by the U.S. to reopen it would be likely to escalate the conflict. Respectivement capitale économique et politique notoires des Emirats, ce …  The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran have a number of these capabilities available, and in short reach of the Strait. Although not all countries have ratified the convention, most countries, including the U.S., accept these customary navigation rules as codified in the Convention. Au lendemain de la destruction d'un drone par un navire américain au dessus du détroit d'Ormuz, Téhéran a «confisqué» un pétrolier britannique dans cette zone sous haute tension. "Costs and Difficulties of Blocking the Strait of Hormuz". Long de 63 km et large de 40 km, … Pour les pays consommateurs, il paraît difficile de trouver une alternative, en volume comme en qualité, aux bruts extraits de la région du Golfe. Citing looming American sanctions after the U.S withdrew from the JCPOA deal earlier in the year. (1) A full closure of the Strait, which is an immense threat to global oil markets, and would likely result in a significant rise in oil prices. , According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, in 2011, an average of 14 tankers per day passed out of the Persian Gulf through the Strait carrying 17 million barrels (2,700,000 m3) of crude oil. le deuxième verrou stratégique du commerce maritime c'est le détroit d'ormuz large d'une trentaine de kilomètres ce des trois voies transiter trente pourcent du pétrole mondial il est sous administration conjointe du sultanat d'oman et de l'iran en cas de crise majeure avec les puissances occidentales l'iran pourrait facilement prendre le contrôle du détroit et déstabiliser ainsi le commerce mondial depuis le … On 24 January, tensions rose further after the European Union imposed sanctions on Iranian oil. Two oil tankers near the strategic Strait of Hormuz were reportedly attacked on Thursday, an assault that left one ablaze and adrift as sailors were evacuated from both vessels and the U.S. Navy rushed to assist amid heightened tensions between Washington and Tehran.  In terms of the international opinion, the threat of closing the Strait can severely damage Iran’s relations to states who are engaging with them economically. Il est clair que les États Unis ont des preuves de ce qu'ils affirment.  Despite an initial 2% rise in oil prices, oil markets ultimately did not react significantly to the Iranian threat, with oil analyst Thorbjoern Bak Jensen of Global Risk Management concluding that "they cannot stop the flow for a longer period due to the amount of U.S. hardware in the area". , Oman has a radar site Link Quality Indicator (LQI) to monitor the TSS in the Strait of Hormuz. (2) Harassment of tanker traffic and damage to the infrastructure, as it was seen in the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. Ce travail s'appuie sur les revenus complémentaires de la publicité et de l'abonnement. Luft stated that reducing Hormuz traffic "presents the West with a new opportunity to augment its current Iran containment strategy. Oct 6, 2017 - USS Thorn (DD-988) Spruance-class destroyer named for Lieutenant Jonathan Thorn, (1779-1811). , In a July 2012 Foreign Policy article, Gal Luft compared Iran and the Strait of Hormuz to the Ottoman Empire and the Dardanelles, a choke point for shipments of Russian grain a century ago. Haghshenass, Fariborz. , On 8 July 2008, Ali Shirazi, a mid-level clerical aide to Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, was quoted by the student news agency ISNA as telling the Revolutionary Guards, "The Zionist regime is pressuring White House officials to attack Iran.  The United States had previously announced its intention to warn Iran that closing the Strait of Hormuz is a "red line" that would provoke an American response.  The spokesman for Iran's Guardian Council, Abbas Ali Kadkhodaei, was quoted as describing the seizure as a "reciprocal action." Authorities were considering whether to reply, although the contents of the letter were not divulged. ", Strait between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, 2019 U.S.–Iran tensions and attacks on oil tankers, Iran's Anti-Access/Area-Denial capabilities.  Traditionally, the motivations of the threats have been a response to U.S. provocations, and a number of economic sanctions posed on Iran by the U.S, targeting both the Iranian oil market, as well as other economic sectors.). It will have a capacity of 1.65 million barrels per day. Le détroit d’Ormuz, qui relie le golfe Persique au golfe d’Oman, est situé entre l’Iran et le sultanat d’Oman. Il est placé sous la double souveraineté d'Oman et de l'Iran mais la libre circulation y est, en théorie, garantie par une convention des Nations unies. Aljazeera, 2019.  Gen. Martin E. Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said this past weekend that the United States would "take action and re-open the strait", which could be accomplished only by military means, including minesweepers, warship escorts and potentially airstrikes. Vous avez choisi de ne pas accepter le dépôt de cookies, notamment les cookies de publicité personnalisée. , The U.S. Navy spokesman Commander Bill Speaks quickly responded that deployment of U.S. military assets would continue as has been the custom stating: "The U.S. Navy operates under international maritime conventions to maintain a constant state of high vigilance in order to ensure the continued, safe flow of maritime traffic in waterways critical to global commerce. Détroit d'Ormuz à Oman: le Kumzari, langue menacée de disparition 01:17. Aujourd’hui, c’est faux. La présence de nombreuses îles – dont celle d’Ormuz qui a donné son nom au détroit – et la faible profondeur des eaux territoriales iraniennes, les obligent à emprunter, à l’entrée comme à la sortie, deux chenaux très étroits – de deux milles nautiques (3,7 km) chaque, séparés par une zone tampon de même largeur –, mais suffisants pour permettre le passage … Ratner, Michael. , Millennium Challenge 2002 was a major war game exercise conducted by the United States armed forces in 2002. Ravivées en mai 2018 par le retrait américain de l’accord international sur le nucléaire et le rétablissement de lourdes sanctions, les tensions se sont récemment intensifiées avec des actes de sabotage et des attaques contre des pétroliers dans la région du Golfe en mai et en juin, imputées par Washington à Téhéran – qui a cependant démenti. Malgré les tensions économiques, malgré les pressions écologiques, nous avons encore trente bonnes années devant nous.  There were no injuries, and no oil leaked from the tanker. , • Naval mine-laying capabilities. He also stated, "We've invested in capabilities to ensure that if that happens, we can defeat that. American Foreign Policy Interests, 2010. , A 2007 report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies also stated that 17 million barrels passed out of the Persian Gulf daily, but that oil flows through the Strait accounted for roughly 40% of all world-traded oil. Sputnik France 33,279 views. Additionally, a closing of the Strait would also have severe consequences for Iran itself. Le détroit d'Ormuz, situé dans la zone où l'Iran a abattu un drone militaire américain, est un point de passage stratégique pour le commerce mondial de pétrole et au cœur des tensions régionales depuis des … During the 1970s, neither Iran or Oman attempted to impede the passage of warships through the strait, but in the 1980s, both countries asserted claims that were different from customary (old) law. | "Can Iran close the Strait of Hormuz?". , In July 2019, a Stena Bulk Tanker, Stena Impero, sailing under a British flag, was boarded and captured by Iranian forces. Il est l’une des zones stratégiques les plus fébriles de la planète. , • Kilo-class submarines and midget submarines. When the ship's master declined, one of the Iranian craft fired shots across the bridge of Maersk Tigris. Une des perturbations majeures du transport pétrolier remonte à 1984, en plein conflit Iran-Irak (1980-1988), durant la « guerre des pétroliers ». The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 2010, p. 41-56, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Center for Strategic and International Studies, USS Hartford and USS New Orleans collision, Navy of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, "How Iran Plans To Bypass The World's Main Oil Chokepoint", "Transit Passage Through International Straits", "The Strait of Hormuz is the world's most important oil transit chokepoint", "2 oil tankers were damaged in possible attacks in the Gulf of Oman", "Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements as at 26 October 2007", "Accession to the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea Is Unnecessary to Secure U.S. Navigational Rights and Freedoms", "Navy says speed of tanker sucked submarine up to surface", "U.S. Navy Commander Warns Iran: Don't Try Closing Gulf Oil Passageway", "Iran to "hit Tel Aviv, U.S. ships" if attacked", "JTFEX 08-4 "Operation Brimstone" Flexes Allied Force Training", "Three major US naval strike forces due this week in Persian Gulf", "U.S. Navy vessels in Bahrain for evaluation after collision", "Oil jumps over 2% as Iran threatens supplies", "US warns Iran over threat to block oil route", "Oil falls on dollar's rise, Wall Street pullback", "Iran threatens U.S. Navy as sanctions hit economy", "Iran nuclear crisis: Sanctions 'beginning to bite, "State Department: Iran is feeling the pressure - Yahoo! , On 22 April 2019, the U.S. ended the oil waivers, which allowed some of Iran’s customers to import Iranian oil, without risking financial penalties as part of the U.S. economic sanctions against Iran. The Iranian Navy Commander, Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari, stated that the strait would not be closed during the exercise; Iranian forces could easily accomplish that but such a decision must be made at a political level.  Upon signing the convention in December 1982, Iran entered a declaration stating "that only states parties to the Law of the Sea Convention shall be entitled to benefit from the contractual rights created therein", including "the right of transit passage through straits used for international navigation". ", While earlier statements from Iran had little effect on global oil markets, coupled with the new sanctions, these comments from Iran are driving crude futures higher, up over 4%. Aljazeera. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Une partrouille maritime iranienne dans le détroit d'Ormuz, le 30 avril 2019. La nouvelle a immédiatement entraîné un bond de 4% des cours du brut.  Enquête Depuis mai, cet étroit corridor maritime est l’un des points chauds de la planète. On August … On 28 April 2015, IRGCN patrol boats contacted the Marshall Islands-flagged container ship Maersk Tigris, which was westbound through the strait, and directed the ship to proceed further into Iranian territorial waters, according to a spokesman for the U.S. Defense Department. Position stratégique sur le Detroit d’Ormuz, hôte depuis 2009 d’une importante base militaire française à Abou Dhabi, participation militaire en 2011 au conflit en Lybie, ‘guerre’ interne depuis 2013/14 contre les Frères Musulmans, tension perpétuelle avec l’Iran et… Dubaï, Abou-Dhabi, des économies florissantes, un développement fulgurant. Current Politics and Economics of the Middle East, 2018, p. 139-150. Le mois suivant, des patrouilleurs iraniens tiraient des coups de semonce dans une apparente tentative d’interception d’un navire commercial battant pavillon singapourien. Further pressure on Iranian currency was added by French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé who was quoted as calling for more "strict sanctions" and urged EU countries to follow the US in freezing Iranian central bank assets and imposing an embargo on oil exports. info) Arabic: مَضيق هُرمُز Maḍīq Hurmuz ) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Iran’s use of its territorial advantages in the Strait of Hormuz is therefore more effective as a threat, than if a complete or partial closure of the Strait is actually executed. Le détroit d’Ormuz, qui relie le golfe Persique au golfe d’Oman, est situé entre l’Iran et le sultanat d’Oman.  These capabilities are meant to prevent advanced navies or other opponents to operate in the Strait and the Persian Gulf, and would be of particular concern to the U.S. In 2016, it was assessed that Iran’s military strength was weak, even compared to regional rivals.