[76], These setbacks put increasing pressure on both Ferdinand and Spanish minister Olivares to make peace. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. [44] However, Spanish and Dutch involvement in the campaign was a significant step in internationalising the war, while Frederick's removal meant other Protestant princes began discussing armed resistance to preserve their own rights and territories. [55] Von Arnim was forced to lift the siege on 4 August, but three weeks later, Christian suffered another defeat at Wolgast. [132] At the same time, it created the outlines of a Europe that persisted until 1815 and beyond; the nation-state of France, the beginnings of a unified Germany and separate Austro-Hungarian bloc, a diminished but still significant Spain, independent smaller states like Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, along with a Low Countries split between the Dutch Republic and what became Belgium in 1830. [38], By abandoning Frederick, the German princes hoped to restrict the dispute to Bohemia, but Maximilian's dynastic ambitions made this impossible. Each member was represented in the Imperial Diet; prior to 1663, this assembled on an irregular basis, and was primarily a forum for discussion, rather than legislation. Charles I of England allowed Christian to recruit up to 9,000 Scottish mercenaries, but they took time to arrive, and while able to slow Wallenstein's advance, were insufficient to stop him. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested up to 60% of the population died.[15]. La guerre de Trente Ans a été menée entre 1618 et 1648. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map). Based on analysis of contemporary reports, less than 3% of civilian deaths were the result of military action; the major causes were starvation (12%), bubonic plague (64%), typhus (4%), and dysentery (5%). In 1938, CV Wedgwood argued it formed part of a wider European conflict, whose underlying cause was the ongoing contest between Austro-Spanish Habsburgs and French Bourbons. (history documentary)", "The 30 Years' War (1618–48) and the Second Defenestration of Prague – Professor Peter Wilson", Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution, Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart, Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII, Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, International Alliance of Catholic Knights, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thirty_Years%27_War&oldid=995360779, 17th-century military history of the Kingdom of England, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Thirty Years' War is briefly referenced in the survival horror game. Possession of these fortresses gave France effective control of Piedmont, protected the Alpine passes into Southern France, and allowed them to threaten Milan at will. Pendant la guerre de Trente Ans (1618-1648), l'Alsace servit de champ de bataille aux armées impériales, suédoises, weimariennes et françaises. One of the most prosperous areas of the Empire, Bohemia's electoral vote was also essential to ensuring Ferdinand succeeded Matthias as Emperor, and Habsburg prestige required its recapture. Dr Bernd Warlich has edited four diaries of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). [85], During the winter of 1647, Mazarin suggested to the Spanish they exchange Catalonia, currently occupied by France, for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by this, in January 1648 the Dutch signed the Peace of Münster, ending their war with Spain. La guerre de Trente ans (1618-1648) fut le plus grand et le plus important des conflits qui ont marqué l’Europe moderne. These trials lasted five years and claimed over one thousand lives, including long-time Bürgermeister, or Mayor, Johannes Junius, and Dorothea Flock, second wife of Georg Heinrich Flock, whose first wife had also been executed for witchcraft in May 1628. Palatinate (until 1632) Rwanda 1990 – 2020 : La guerre de trente ans. Five days later, the Prince de Condé won a decisive French victory at Rocroi, although he was unable to take full advantage. Occasionally it meant full-scale conflict, such as the 1583 to 1588 Cologne War, caused by the conversion to Calvinism of the Prince Elector, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. La ville protestante espérant l'arrivée des troupes de secours de Gustave Adolphe refusa cependant de capituler. With the exception of the 1639 to 1642 Piedmontese Civil War, this secured the French position in Northern Italy for the next twenty years. [98], Taken as a whole, the consequences of these two treaties can be divided into the internal political settlement and external territorial changes. Le 23 mai 1618, la révolte des nobles tchèques contre la monarchie des Habsbourg et la restauration du catholicisme en Bohême lance la guerre de trente ans. Gustavus Adolphus despatched several thousand Scots and Swedish troops under Alexander Leslie to Stralsund, who was appointed governor. Bien que postérieure de trois cents ans, la guerre de Trente Ans est similaire sur bien des aspects : massacres et saccages, déclencheur de guerres civiles ou de révoltes populaires dans les pays ravagés, ou encore ne serait-ce que sur la durée s'étendant sur plusieurs générations et règnes, et la dénomination même du conflit. This provided an opportunity for Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who invaded the Empire in 1630; backed by French subsidies, the Swedes and their German allies won a series of victories over Imperial forces, although Gustavus was killed in 1632. While Spain remained the dominant power in Italy, its reliance on long exterior lines of communication was a potential weakness, especially the Spanish Road; this overland route allowed them to move recruits and supplies from Naples and Lombardy to their army in Flanders. [91], Throughout the 1630s, attempts to increase taxes in order to pay for the costs of the war in the Netherlands led to protests throughout Spanish territories; in 1640, these erupted into open revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, supported by Richelieu as part of his 'war by diversion'. Until the mid-20th century, it was seen as predominantly a German civil war and considered one of the European wars of religion. La ville de Magdebourg perd toute importance pendant des décennies. The chief agents of the Counter-Reformation were similarly split, the Jesuits generally backing Austria, the Capuchins France. [88], France and Savoy made peace in the April 1629 Treaty of Suza, which allowed French troops passage through Savoy, and recognised their control of Casale and Pinerolo. Possession of these territories ensured Danish control of the Elbe and Weser rivers. More common were disputes such as the 1606 'battle of the flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. [71] Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. This seemed confirmed when Tilly's Catholic League army occupied Halberstadt in early 1625. La guerre de Trente Ans a été menée entre 1618 et 1648.  France (from 1635), Imperial alliance [86], Northern Italy had been contested by France and the Habsburgs for centuries, since it was vital for control of South-West France, an area with a long history of opposition to the central authorities. In 1625, he intervened in Northern Germany but withdrew in 1629 after a series of defeats. Then the predominant global power, the Spanish Empire included the Spanish Netherlands, much of Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas, while Austria remained focused on Central Europe. [104], Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. [28], Another was Frederick V, Elector Palatine, who succeeded his father in 1610, and in 1613 married Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I of England. [117] The collapse of local government created landless peasants, who banded together to protect themselves from the soldiers of both sides, and led to widespread rebellions in Upper Austria, Bavaria and Brandenburg. He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. This threatened other Protestant rulers within the Empire, including Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein. [118], Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. [41], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. This resulted in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with France and Sweden respectively. L'Espagne résiste, profitant des troubles de la Fronde. [43], At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands and electoral vote to Maximilian. During 1629, another 274 suspected witches were killed in the Bishopric of Eichstätt, plus another 50 in the adjacent Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg. [126], The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. However, the rebels soon found the new French administration differed little from the old, turning the war into a three-sided contest between the Franco-Catalan elite, the rural peasantry, and the Spanish. The Imperial army under Gallas retreated into Bohemia, pursued by Torstenson, whose victory at Jankau in March 1645 allowed him to threaten both Prague and Vienna. While Denmark kept Schleswig and Holstein until 1864, this effectively ended its reign as the predominant Nordic state. Trois décennies de massacres et de pillage : la guerre de Trente Ans fut une catastrophe démographique qui a longtemps hanté l'Allemagne. Chronic financial weakness meant prior to 1619 the Austrian Habsburgs had no standing army of any size, leaving them dependent on Maximilian and their Spanish relatives for money and men. These diaries can be viewed (in German) at: This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 16:52. This view is now generally accepted by historians. [59], As ever, Richelieu's policy was to 'arrest the course of Spanish progress', and 'protect her neighbours from Spanish oppression'. [97], Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. Intended as the basis of a wider coalition against Ferdinand, France, Sweden, Savoy and the Republic of Venice were also invited to join, but it was overtaken by events. Pour les catholiques de l'époque, elle était la manifestation de la colère divine. [17], After 1560, the Protestant cause was deeply divided by the growth of Calvinism, a Reformed faith not recognised by Augsburg; Lutheran states like Saxony viewed Calvinists in the Palatinate and Brandenburg with mistrust, paralysing Imperial institutions. [18] In addition, rulers might share the same religion but have different economic and strategic objectives; for much of the war, the Papacy supported France against the Habsburgs. Comme ville protestante et ville hanséatique, Magdebourg, est assiégée par l'armée impériale de novembre 1630 jusqu'au 10 mai 1631. Appointed to rule the Duchy of Styria in 1595, within eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. [66] Payments amounted to 400,000 Reichstaler, or one million livres per year, plus an additional 120,000 Reichstalers for 1630. [47] In 1621, Hamburg accepted Danish 'supervision', while his son Frederick became joint-administrator of Lübeck, Bremen and Verden. Enfin Louis XIV s’attache les services de Vauban, qui révolutionne l’art de faire la guerre, après les dérives dévastatrices de la guerre de Trente ans (1618-1648), avec ses pillages et massacres. Transylvania (until 1621)[1] [75], Ferdinand II died in February 1637 and was succeeded by his son Ferdinand III, who faced a rapidly deteriorating military situation. This is generally seen as the point when the conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war. La guerre de Trente Ans est une série de conflits armés qui a déchiré l’Europe du 23 mai 1618 au 15 mai 1648.Les causes en sont multiples mais son déclencheur est la révolte des sujets tchèques protestants de la maison de Habsbourg, la répression qui s'ensuivit, et le désir des Habsbourg d’accroître leur hégémonie et celle de la religion catholique dans le Saint-Empire. Peace of Westphalia La guerre de Trente Ans est une série de conflits armés qui a déchiré l’Europe du 23 mai 1618 au 15 mai 1648.Les causes en sont multiples mais son déclencheur est la révolte des sujets tchèques protestants de la maison de Habsbourg, la répression qui s'ensuivit, et le désir des Habsbourg d’accroître leur hégémonie et celle de la religion catholique dans le Saint-Empire. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived. Delivering these commitments required his election as Emperor, which was not guaranteed; one alternative was Maximilian of Bavaria, who opposed the increase of Spanish influence in an area he considered his own, and tried to create a coalition with Saxony and the Palatinate to support his candidacy. [31], Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them. [131], Although religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe with religion as its primary driver; later such conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. Hesse-Kassel (from 1629) Les termes « justice de Magdeburg » et « pitié de Magdeburg » ont également longtemps servi de prétexte aux protestants pour justifier l'exécution de catholiques. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. Even after union, the Portuguese dominated the Atlantic trade in Triangular trade, exporting slaves from West Africa and Angola to work sugar plantations in Brazil. In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. [127], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. Regardless of religion, most German princes refused to support him and by early 1620 the Bohemian Revolt had been suppressed. … Electorate of Bavaria Catholic League (1618–1635), The Thirty Years' War was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648; estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. [80], After Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in Germany; at Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Swedish commander Lennart Torstenson defeated an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and Ottavio Piccolomini. [65], However, once again Richelieu provided the requisite support; in the 1631 Treaty of Bärwalde, he provided funds for the Heilbronn League, a Swedish-led coalition of German Protestant states, including Saxony and Brandenburg. [57], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. When the Eighty Years War restarted in April 1621, the Dutch provided Frederick military support to regain his lands, along with a mercenary army under Mansfeld paid for with English subsidies. [93], This was accompanied by a struggle for control in the East Indies and Africa, increasing Portuguese resentment against the Spanish, who were perceived as prioritising their own colonies. Les troupes de Tilly pourvues d'un important matériel de siège entreprirent d'abord d'investir les défenses extérieures, chose faite le 1er mai, puis les faubourgs deux jours plus tard. [74] In March 1636, France finally joined the Thirty Years War in alliance with Sweden, launching offensives in Germany and the Low Countries. When Frederick refused to admit defeat, the war expanded into the Palatinate, whose strategic importance drew in external powers, notably the Dutch Republic and Spain. 1638, 12 - 15 avril: Massacre du château de Hara: 37 000 7: Château de Hara, au Japon The treaty confirmed Dutch independence, although the Imperial Diet did not formally accept that it was no longer part of the Empire until 1728. The income from their imperial possessions remained in Germany and did not benefit the kingdom of Sweden; although they retained Swedish Pomerania until 1815, much of it was ceded to Prussia in 1679 and 1720. [40], The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. Ces périodes sont : 1. la période bohémienne et palatine de 1618 à 1625 ; 2. [102], The settlement failed to achieve its stated intention of achieving a 'universal peace'; Mazarin insisted on excluding the Burgundian Circle from the treaty of Münster, allowing France to continue its campaign against Spain in the Low Countries, a war that continued until the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. A specially designed Malefizhaus, or 'crime house', was erected containing a torture chamber, whose walls were adorned with Bible verses, where the accused were interrogated. [64] Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. In return, Ferdinand made concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch. [26], In 1609, the Twelve Years' Truce suspended the war between Spain and the Dutch, which was due to expire in 1621. Unlike French gains which were incorporated into France, Swedish territories remained part of the Empire, and they became members of the Lower and Upper Saxon kreis. À la fin de la guerre de Trente Ans (en 1648, dix-sept ans plus tard), la ville ne compte plus que quelques centaines d'habitants. Parce que cette histoire d’un conflit qui s’est passé il y a 350 ans et plus, nous renvoie à de l’actualité. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. Bolstered by this success, Ferdinand passed the Edict of Restitution, which undermined territorial rights across large areas of North and Central Germany. [112], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; his membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. Ferdinand and his advisors were greatly concerned by the brutal nature of the Würzburg and Bamberg trials, fearing they would discredit the Counter-Reformation, and active persecution largely ended by 1630. [89], Between 1629 and 1631, plague exacerbated by troop movements killed 60,000 in Milan and 46,000 in Venice, with proportionate losses elsewhere. Food shortages were worsened by an explosion in the rodent population; Bavaria was over-run by wolves in the winter of 1638, its crops destroyed by packs of wild pigs the following spring. [45], With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. Lack of a sense of 'shared community' resulted in atrocities such as the destruction of Magdeburg, while creating large numbers of refugees, who were extremely susceptible to sickness and hunger. Frederick and the remnants of Mansfeld's army took refuge in the Dutch Republic. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. The defection of their German allies led France to join the war directly, which continued until Westphalia in 1648. Ferdinand accepted the supremacy of the Imperial Diet and legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion. In 1618, the Bohemian Estates deposed the Catholic Ferdinand II as King of Bohemia; they offered the Crown to the Protestant Frederick V of the Palatinate, who accepted. Le sac de Magdebourg désigne la conquête et le pillage de la ville de Magdebourg, le 20 mai 1631 (selon le calendrier grégorien) par les troupes de la Ligue catholique. Il s'agit d'un des plus importants massacres de la guerre de Trente Ans tant par l'étendue des pertes humaines que par la cruauté de la tuerie. [73], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. In Lorraine, the Three Bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun, occupied by France since 1552, were formally ceded, as were the cities of the Décapole in Alsace, with the exception of Strasbourg and Mulhouse. [120], At the same time, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim held a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby Bishopric of Bamberg. [119] They originated in the Bishopric of Würzburg, an area with a history of such events going back to 1616 and now re-ignited by Bishop von Ehrenberg, a devout Catholic eager to assert the church's authority in his territories. Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, and the bishoprics of Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Kammin, and Minden. The conflict can be split into two main parts.  Dutch Republic (from 1619) Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. Celle-ci résiste, bien fortifié… By 1623, Spanish-Imperial forces controlled the Palatinate; backed by the Catholic League, Ferdinand stripped Frederick of his possessions and sent him into exile. Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War, La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo, Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, "The French Army of the Thirty Years' War: Introduction and Maison du Roi", "Review Article: Spain and the Netherlands in the 17th Century", "Military developments in the Thirty Years War", "Lecture 6: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560–1715", "German 'witch' declared innocent after 385 years", "The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany", "The Socio-Economic Relations of Warfare and the Military Mortality Crises of the Thirty Years' War", "Real Wages and the Origins of Modern Economic Growth in Germany, 16th to 19th Centuries", "The Long-term Impact of the Thirty Years War: What Grain Price Data Reveal", "The Origins of the Thirty Years War and the Structure of European Politics", http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php, Project "Peace of Westphalia" (among others with Essay Volumes of the 26th Exhibition of the Council of Europe "1648: War and Peace in Europe", 1998/99), BBC Radio4 documentary – The Invention of Germany: The Thirty Years' War and Magdeburg, - Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth, "The Thirty Years' War - how was peace achieved? "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620." Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHeitz,_Risher1995 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFParker1997 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWilson1976 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHayden1973 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSpielvogel2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDavenport1917 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMurdoch,_Grosjean2014 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFParker,_Adams1997 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPorshnev,_Dukes1995 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMurdoch,_Zickermann,_Marks2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMitchell2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFIsrael1989 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSchulze,_Volckart2019 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPfister,_Riedel,_Uebele2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBonney2002pp89-90 (, Protestantism was effectively wiped out in what is now. This made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader; one lesson learned from Wallenstein and the Swedish invasion was the need for their own permanent armies, and Germany as a whole became a far more militarised society. [29], The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. [121], Elsewhere, persecution followed Imperial military success, expanding into Baden and the Palatinate following their reconquest by Tilly, then into the Rhineland. [81], In 1643, Frederick III of Denmark re-entered the conflict as an Imperial ally, threatening the Swedes with a war on two fronts. Celle-ci résiste, bien fortifiée, et attend les renforts du roi de Suède, Gustave-Adolphe. Elle a toujours une résonance particulière puisque la résurgence actuelle des guerres religieuses semble faire parfois mentir les règles de la géopolitique classique. [80], In September 1645, the Swedes agreed a six-month truce with Saxony; Ferdinand accepted a military solution was no longer possible, and in October ordered his diplomats to begin serious negotiations at Westphalia. [30] Focused on retaking the Netherlands, the Spanish Habsburgs preferred to avoid antagonising Protestants elsewhere, and recognised the dangers associated with Ferdinand's fervent Catholicism, but accepted the lack of alternatives. This was the reason behind Spanish involvement in the Jülich dispute; by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. [37], As a result, although Frederick accepted the crown and entered Prague in October 1619, his support gradually eroded over the next few months. Massacres, famines, pestes déciment plus de la moitié de la population, et c'est une Alsace misérable qu'en des clauses obscures le traité de Westphalie cède à la France. Une guerre, à l'époque où la Lorraine était un duché indépendant de la France . [22], These tensions gradually undermined Augsburg, and paralysed institutions like the Imperial diet designed to resolve them peacefully. [110], The modern consensus is the population of the Holy Roman Empire declined from 18 to 20 million in 1600 to 11-13 million in 1650, and did not reach pre-war levels until 1750. La mémoire collective et la littérature en conservent la souvenir, de Simplicissimus à Mère Courage. Despite these setbacks, the Habsburg lands suffered less from the war than many others and became a far more coherent bloc with the absorption of Bohemia, and restoration of Catholicism throughout their territories. [123] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. […] Le monde fait la guerre de trente ans, pour ou contre la domination universelle du germanisme ». Previously, many had overlapping, sometimes conflicting political and religious allegiances; they were now understood to be subject first and foremost to the laws and edicts of their respective state authority, not to the claims of any other entity, be it religious or secular. The Dutch destroyed a large supply convoy at the Downs in October 1639, while Madrid's inability to prevent attacks on Portuguese possessions in Africa and the Americas caused increasing unrest in Portugal, then part of the Spanish Empire. [79] Mazarin began seeking a negotiated peace; 25 years of constant war had devastated the countryside, forcing armies to spend more time foraging than fighting, and drastically reducing their ability to sustain campaigns. Il s'agit d'un des plus importants massacres de la guerre de Trente Ans tant par l'étendue des pertes humaines que par la cruauté de la tuerie. In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. Proche de Belgrade, la Russie a mis en 2015 son veto à la résolution de l’ONU qualifiant le massacre de génocide. [52], Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. Comme ville protestante et ville hanséatique, Magdebourg, aujourd'hui capitale de la Saxe-Anhalt, est assiégée par l'armée impériale de novembre 1630 jusqu'au 10 mai 1631. Le sac de Magdebourg, le siège et le pillage de la ville protestante en Allemagne en grande partie par les forces de l'Empire romain pendant la Guerre de Trente Ans. Bohemia (until 1620) Cette guerre semée d'atrocités et de massacres en tous genres a été inaugurée en 1618 par une obscure querelle entre les protestants de Bohême et Matthias, empereur d'Allemagne et roi de Bohême, par ailleurs catholique.