This encouraged an escalation in the number of public demonstrations and instances of paramilitary violence organised by the NSDAP. Influenced by the brief cultural explosion in the Soviet Union, German literature, cinema, theatre and musical works entered a phase of great creativity. Innovative street theatre brought plays to the public, and the cabaret scene and jazz band became very popular. Histoire politique. [66] Meanwhile, Hitler's promised written guarantee to Monsignor Kaas was being typed up, it was asserted to Kaas, and thereby Kaas was persuaded to silently deliver the Centre bloc's votes for the Enabling Act anyway. English: After the swearing-in of the first president of Reich in Weimar: ... Weimar: Date: 21 August 1919 This guarantee was not ultimately given. Une expérience radicalement neuve pour les Allemands et non une parenthèse forcément condamnée à l'échec. Hitler's successful plan was to induce what remained of the now Communist-depleted Reichstag to grant him, and the Government, the authority to issue decrees with the force of law. Thus, the USPD left the "Council of the People's Deputies" after only seven weeks. À la mort du président Ebert, en 1925, le vieux maréchal Paul von Hindenburg (78 ans) est élu à sa succession au suffrage universel. Prior to the First World War, the constituent states of the German Empire were 22 smaller monarchies, three republican city-states and the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. La République de l'entre-deux-guerres, victorieuse et fragilisée (1919-1934) - Duration: 6:10. The right to bargain collectively was also established, while it was made obligatory "to elect workers’ committees on estates and establish conciliation committees". Later that day, the first cabinet meeting was attended by only two political parties, representing a minority in the Reichstag: The Nazis and the German National People's Party (DNVP), led by Alfred Hugenberg, with 196 and 52 seats respectively. In this time, the radical left-wing parties, including the USPD and KPD, were barely able to get themselves organised, leading to a solid majority of seats for the MSPD moderate forces. The term "Weimar Republic" refers to the city of Weimar, where the republic's constituent assembly first took place. La République de Weimar, proclamée novembre 9, 1918, était défaite et révolution sociale au beau milieu de militaires soutenues. Ebert called for a "National Congress of Councils" (Reichsrätekongress), which took place from 16 to 20 December 1918, and in which the MSPD had the majority. However, he also drew right-wing extremist hatred as a Jew (see also Weimar antisemitism). The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (listen)), is a historical designation for the German federal state that existed from 1918 to 1933. Hitler, however, assured his coalition partners that arrests would resume after the elections and, in fact, some 26 SPD Social Democrats were physically removed. The Council issued a large number of decrees that radically shifted German policies. After the dissolution of the army of the former German Empire, known as the Deutsches Heer (simply "German Army") or the Reichsheer ("Army of the Realm") in 1918; Germany's military forces consisted of irregular paramilitaries, namely the various right-wing Freikorps ("Free Corps") groups composed of veterans from the war. In line with the contemporary economic theory (subsequently termed "leave-it-alone liquidationism"), he enacted a draconian policy of deflation and drastically cutting state expenditure. Ludwig Kaas is considered along with Papen as being one of the two most important political figures in the creation of the Nazi regime.[62]. This was the "stab-in-the-back myth" that was unceasingly propagated by the right in the 1920s and ensured that many monarchists and conservatives would refuse to support the government of what they called the "November criminals". En savoir plus, se développe avec le seul soutien de ses abonnés...En savoir plus, Dommage de caricaturer le mouvement spartakiste, Rosa Luxemburg et Karl Liebknetch et les conseils ouvriers. Immediately afterward, Brüning submitted the president's decree that the Reichstag be dissolved. While the official reparations were considerable, Germany ended up paying only a fraction of them. Shortly after, France completely occupied the Rhineland, strictly controlling all important industrial areas. These signs had remained symbols of the Paulskirche movement. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded it formal (de jure) recognition, and the two mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims. Allemagne, République de Weimar, reichspfennig, 1927-G. A/ DEUTSCHES REICH/ REICHSPFENNIG. Germany was the first state to establish diplomatic relations with the new Soviet Union. Because the production costs in Germany were falling almost hourly, the prices for German products were unbeatable. Au centre : 1. Conservatives and reactionaries feared that Germany was betraying its traditional values by adopting popular styles from abroad, particularly those Hollywood was popularising in American films, while New York became the global capital of fashion. The radical left accused the ruling Social Democrats of having betrayed the ideals of the workers' movement by preventing a communist revolution and sought to overthrow the Republic and do so themselves. Military-industrial activity had almost ceased, although controlled demobilisation kept unemployment at around one million. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 (when payments were suspended indefinitely) was 20 billion German gold marks, worth about US$5 billion or £1 billion British pounds. [10] Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany. [clarification needed] As the Young Plan did not allow a devaluation of the Reichsmark, Brüning triggered a deflationary internal devaluation by forcing the economy to reduce prices, rents, salaries and wages by 20%. Le 6 février 1919, trois mois après l'armistice qui a mis fin à la Grande Guerre (1914-1918), une Assemblée constituante allemande se réunit dans le théâtre de Weimar, la ville de Goethe et Schiller, illustres représentants de l'âme allemande ! While Erzberger was attacked for signing the armistice agreement in 1918, Rathenau as foreign minister was responsible, among other things, for the reparations issue. But the Reichswehr officers were not prepared for this, the working class had a natural distrust of their future allies, and the great capitalists and landowners also did not like the plans. Stresemann's reforms did not relieve the underlying weaknesses of Weimar but gave the appearance of a stable democracy. As a result, it was no longer possible to form a pro-republican majority, not even with a grand coalition that excluded the KPD, DNVP and NSDAP. The 'Ebert–Groener pact' stipulated that the government would not attempt to reform the army so long as the army swore to protect the state. The revolution spread throughout Germany, and participants seized military and civil powers in individual cities. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak, tongue and claws in red colour. The sailors and soldiers, inexperienced in matters of revolutionary combat, welcomed him as an experienced politician and allowed him to negotiate a settlement, thus defusing the initial anger of the revolutionaries in uniform. Even Stresemann's 'German People's party' failed to gain nationwide recognition, and instead featured in the 'flip-flop' coalitions. Brüning expected that the policy of deflation would temporarily worsen the economic situation before it began to improve, quickly increasing the German economy's competitiveness and then restoring its creditworthiness. Hitler used the provisions of the Enabling Act to pre-empt possible opposition to his dictatorship from other sources, in which he was mostly successful. Allemagne -- Histoire -- 1918-1933 (République de Weimar) Condition économique. These intentions badly underestimated Hitler's political abilities. Fritz-Helmut Wisch, Paul Martin and Marianne Martinson. For the German city, see, States of the Weimar Republic in the 1920s (with, The official coat of arms of Germany from 1928 to 1933, designed by Tobias Schwab, Brüning's policy of deflation (1930–1932). In English the country was usually simply called "Germany," and the term "Weimar Republic" did not become common until the 1930s. While the first German Confederal Navy (Reichsflotte, 1848–1852) had proudly deployed a naval ensign based on Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the Weimar republic navy, or Reichsmarine (1918–1933) insisted on using the pre-1918 colours of the former Kaiserliche Marine (1871–1918), which were Black-White-Red, as did the German merchant marine. [18], A number of other reforms were carried out in Germany during the revolutionary period. When the New York Stock Exchange crashed in October 1929, American loans dried up and the sharp decline of the German economy brought the "Golden Twenties" to an abrupt end. As the Weimar Republic was very fragile in all its existence, the depression was devastating, and played a major role in the Nazi takeover. Thus, Ebert was able to institute elections for a provisional National Assembly that would be given the task of writing a democratic constitution for parliamentary government, marginalising the movement that called for a socialist republic. La Révolution allemande de novembre 1918 entraîne la substitution de la démocratie parlementaire à la monarchie constitutionnelle. Circulation of money rocketed, and soon banknotes were being overprinted to a thousand times their nominal value and every town produced its own promissory notes; many banks and industrial firms did the same. The new government was expected to lead a political shift towards conservatism. Former Chancellor Heinrich Brüning proclaimed that his Centre Party would resist any constitutional change and appealed to the President for an investigation of the Reichstag fire. La République parlementaire de Weimar fut, jusqu'en 1929, un régime démocratique efficace. In the four years following the First World War, the situation for German civilians remained dire. Overall trade increased and unemployment fell. [5] Among other measures, he completely halted all public grants to the obligatory unemployment insurance introduced in 1927, resulting in workers making higher contributions and fewer benefits for the unemployed. The growing post-war economic crisis was a result of lost pre-war industrial exports, the loss of supplies in raw materials and foodstuffs due to the continental blockade, the loss of the colonies, and worsening debt balances, exacerbated by an exorbitant issue of promissory notes raising money to pay for the war. Examples include the nationwide pig slaughter, Schweinemord, in 1915. This was intended to forestall any action against the government by the Communists. Hindenburg then appointed Franz von Papen as new Reichskanzler. [39] That same year, health insurance was extended to wives and daughters without their own income, people only partially capable of gainful employment, people employed in private cooperatives, and people employed in public cooperatives. La fin de la République de Weimar. To avoid the ongoing fights in Berlin, the National Assembly convened in the city of Weimar, giving the future Republic its unofficial name. [citation needed] After four years of war and famine, many German workers were exhausted, physically impaired and discouraged. la République de Weimar 1) L'Allemagne démocratique a) Traité de Versailles et la fin de la 1er guerre mondiale b) Conséquences du traité 2) La République de Weimar a) La During the worst phase of hyperinflation in 1923, the clubs and bars were full of speculators who spent their daily profits so they would not lose the value the following day. The Weimar Republic was severely affected by the Great Depression. However, the reparations damaged Germany's economy by discouraging market loans, which forced the Weimar government to finance its deficit by printing more currency, causing rampant hyperinflation. Social tensions, political struggles, social upheavals, as well as artistic revolutions and innovations characterize the Weimar Republic. The Republic's first Reichspräsident ("Reich President"), Friedrich Ebert of the SPD, signed the new German constitution into law on 11 August 1919. Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor on the morning of 30 January 1933 in what some observers later described as a brief and indifferent ceremony. Turabian (6th ed.) At the end of 1933, Mecklenburg-Strelitz was merged with Mecklenburg-Schwerin to form a united Mecklenburg. In response, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr region, Germany's most productive industrial region at the time, taking control of most mining and manufacturing companies in January 1923. The rebellion caused great fear in the establishment and in the middle classes because of the Soviet-style aspirations of the councils. On 13 March 1920 during the Kapp Putsch, 12,000 Freikorps soldiers occupied Berlin and installed Wolfgang Kapp, a right-wing journalist, as chancellor. [36] Germany signed arbitration conventions with France and Belgium and arbitration treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, undertaking to refer any future disputes to an arbitration tribunal or to the Permanent Court of International Justice. La République de Weimar n'est pas le produit d'une révolution démocratique victorieuse, mais de violences contre-révolutionnaires. Wolfgang Elz, "Foreign policy" in Anthony McElligott, ed., American Journal of Care for Cripples, Volume 8, Douglas C. McMurtrie, 1919, AQA History: The Development of Germany, 1871–1925 by Sally Waller. [55] Anton Erkelenz, chairman of the German Democratic Party and a contemporary critic of Brüning, famously said that the policy of deflation is: A rightful attempt to release Germany from the grip of reparation payments, but in reality it meant nothing else than committing suicide because of fearing death. Découvrez toutes nos lettres déjà parues. The ceremony helped convince the "old guard" Prussian military elite of Hitler's homage to their long tradition and, in turn, produced the relatively convincing view that Hitler's government had the support of Germany's traditional protector—the Army. Sporadic fighting continued to flare up around the country. federal president of germany frank-walter steinmeier and his wife elke büdenbender welcomes the people in front of the hotel russischer hof in weimar - weimar republic stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images To help Germany meet reparation obligations, the Dawes Plan was created in 1924. Those years are sometimes called the Golden Twenties. The reasons for the Weimar Republic's collapse are the subject of continuing debate. From 1923 to 1929, there was a short period of economic recovery, but the Great Depression of the 1930s led to a worldwide recession. In addition, a supplementary directive of December 1918 specified that female (and child) workers were entitled to a fifteen-minute break if they worked between four and six hours, thirty minutes for workdays lasting six to eight hours, and one hour for longer days. On 20 March, negotiation began between Hitler and Frick on one side and the Catholic Centre Party (Zentrum) leaders—Kaas, Stegerwald and Hackelsburger on the other. This was against the Treaty of Versailles, which limited Germany to 100,000 soldiers and no conscription, naval forces of 15,000 men, twelve destroyers, six battleships, and six cruisers, no submarines or aircraft. December 2008; Geographie et Cultures; DOI: 10.4000/gc.1614. The Freikorps units were formally disbanded in 1920 (although continued to exist in underground groups), and on 1 January 1921, a new Reichswehr (figuratively; Defence of the realm) was created. In October 1925 the Treaty of Locarno was signed by Germany, France, Belgium, Britain and Italy; it recognised Germany's borders with France and Belgium. The major weakness in constitutional terms was the inherent instability of the coalitions, which often fell prior to elections. The highly publicised rhetoric of 1919 about paying for all the damages and all the veterans' benefits was irrelevant for the total, but it did determine how the recipients spent their share. Date of birth/death: ... le chancelier du Reich Constantin Fehrenbach et les membres de gouvernement sont en train de faire acclamer la république. According to historian Richard J. Evans:[12]. The German colonial empire was stripped and given over to Allied forces. The last years of the Weimar Republic was marred by even more systemic political instability than in the previous years as political violence increased. It was made harder for estates to sack workers and prevent them from leaving when they wanted to; under the Provisional Act for Agricultural Labour of 23 November 1918 the normal period of notice for management, and for most resident labourers, was set at six weeks. Berlin intellectuals responded by condemning the excesses of what they considered capitalism, and demanding revolutionary changes on the cultural scenery. Benefits for the sick, invalid and pensioners were also reduced sharply. This speech aimed especially at the future recognition by the named Holy See and therefore to the votes of the Centre Party addressing many concerns Kaas had voiced during the previous talks. On 30 December, the split deepened when the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) was formed out of a number of radical left-wing groups, including the left wing of the USPD and the Spartacus League group. This date, dubbed by the Nazis as the Machtergreifung (seizure of power), is commonly seen as the beginning of Nazi Germany. La République de Weimar a plus de contradicteurs que de … Germany lost the war because the country ran out of allies and its economic resources were running out; support among the population began to crumble in 1916 and by mid-1918 there was support for the war only among the die-hard monarchists and conservatives. At this, Hitler could no longer restrain his wrath.[65]. The rest was goods such as coal and chemicals, or from assets like railway equipment. By late summer 1918 the German reserves were exhausted while fresh American troops arrived in France at the rate of 10,000 a day. After meeting with Centre leader Monsignor Ludwig Kaas and other Centre Trade Union leaders daily and denying them a substantial participation in the government, negotiation succeeded in respect of guarantees towards Catholic civil-servants and education issues. The MSPD decided to make use of their support at the grassroots and put themselves at the front of the movement, demanding that Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicate. The German military was forced to have no more than 100,000 men with only 4,000 officers. Four Chancellors Brüning, Papen, Schleicher and, from 30 January to 23 March 1933, Hitler governed through presidential decree rather than through parliamentary consultation. Germany was more susceptible to Americanization, because of the close economic links brought about by the Dawes plan. On 11 November 1918, an armistice was signed at Compiègne by German representatives. The 1920s German inflation started when Germany had no goods to trade. Those articles of the Weimar constitution (which dealt with the state's relationship to various Christian churches) remain part of the German Basic Law. In return for pledging his support for the act, Kaas would use his connections with the Vatican to set in train and draft the Holy See's long desired Reichskonkordat with Germany (only possible with the co-operation of the Nazis). Request full-text PDF. Hitler and the Nazis exploited the German state's broadcasting and aviation facilities in a massive attempt to sway the electorate, but this election yielded a scant majority of 16 seats for the coalition. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. [26] With the affirmation of Ebert, those responsible were not tried before a court martial, leading to lenient sentences, which made Ebert unpopular among radical leftists. [8] Debate continues as to whether this policy was without alternative: some argue that the Allies would not in any circumstances have allowed a devaluation of the Reichsmark, while others point to the Hoover Moratorium as a sign that the Allies understood that the situation had changed fundamentally and further German reparation payments were impossible. Meetings of the left-wing parties were banned and even some of the moderate parties found their members threatened and assaulted. [53] In mid-1931, the United Kingdom abandoned the gold standard and about 30 countries (the sterling bloc) devalued their currencies,[54] making their goods around 20% cheaper than those produced by Germany. This page was last edited on 11 January 2019, at 17:59. Governments frequently lasted only a year, comparable to the political situation in France during the 1930s. En raison des circonstances exceptionnelles, il est désigné par l'Assemblée et ne sera jamais légitimé par le suffrage universel comme le prévoit la Constitution de Weimar. The four great political movements, the SPD, Communists, Centre, and the Nazis were in opposition. The decisive blow came with the entry of the United States into the conflict, which made its vast industrial resources available to the beleaguered Allies. The Nazi party then supplanted the Social Democrats as the largest party in the Reichstag, although it did not gain a majority. At the beginning of 1920, 50 marks was equivalent to one US dollar. The national government fled to Stuttgart and called for a general strike against the putsch. "Germany will become free, but not through you," he shouted. Therefore, Hitler refused ministry under Papen, and demanded the chancellorship for himself, but was rejected by Hindenburg on 13 August 1932. Il a publié chez Flammarion plusieurs manuels d'Histoire, régulièrement réédités : Chronologie universelle, Les grandes dates de l'Histoire de France... Passionné d'Histoire depuis la petite enfance, notre directeur de la rédaction a suivi une maîtrise d'Histoire à l'université de Toulouse en parallèle avec des études d'ingénieur à l'École centrale de Lyon (1973-1976). Dada dans la République de Weimar. Most of the remaining states were formally dissolved by the Allies at the end of the Second World War and ultimately reorganised into the modern states of Germany. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never completely met its disarmament requirements and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations (by twice restructuring its debt through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan).[7]. Otto Wels, the leader of the Social Democrats, whose seats were similarly depleted from 120 to below 100, was the only speaker to defend democracy and in a futile but brave effort to deny Hitler the ⅔ majority, he made a speech critical of the abandonment of democracy to dictatorship. The burdens of the First World War lightened little in the immediate years following, and with the onset of the Treaty of Versailles, coupled by mass inflation, Germany still remained in a crisis. In English the country w… A timeline of the Weimar Republic gives an overview from its foundation in 1918 to its end in 1933, focusing on its early years. [44], The Imperial Youth Welfare Act of 1922 obliged all municipalities and states to set up youth offices in charge of child protection, and also codified a right to education for all children,[45] while laws were passed to regulate rents and increase protection for tenants in 1922 and 1923. [citation needed], The treaty was signed June 28, 1919 and is easily divided into four categories: territorial issues, disarmament demands, reparations, and assignment of guilt. Instead, the struggles induced by the First World War persisted for the decade following. After the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the remaining states continued as republics. On 9 November 1918, the "German Republic" was proclaimed by MSPD member Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building in Berlin, to the fury of Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the MSPD, who thought that the question of monarchy or republic should be answered by a national assembly. Hitler learned from Papen that the general had not received from Hindenburg the authority to abolish the Reichstag parliament, whereas any majority of seats did. The Republic was soon under attack from both left- and right-wing sources. By the end of the year, over two hundred factories were working full-time to produce paper for the spiralling bank note production. Gustav Noske, a self-appointed military expert in the MSPD, was sent to Kiel to prevent any further unrest and took on the task of controlling the mutinous sailors and their supporters in the Kiel barracks. Since Weimar politicians had been blamed for the Dolchstoß ("stab-in-the-back"), a widely believed theory that Germany's surrender in the First World War had been the unnecessary act of traitors, the popular legitimacy of the government was on shaky ground. Germany was forced under Article 235 to pay 20 billion gold marks, about 4.5 billion dollars by 1921. En janvier 1919, une Assemblée nationale a été choisie pour rédiger une constitution. Entités précédentes : * Empire allemand Entités suivantes : * Deuxième République de Pologne (1919) * Drapeau du Danemark Danemark (Jutland-du-Sud) (1920) * Drapeau de l'Allemagne nazie Reich allemand La république de Weimar (en allemand : Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪ.ma.ʁɐ ʁe.pu.ˈbliːk] ) est le nom donné par les historiens au régime politique en place en Allemagne de 1918 à 1933. Stinnes made sure that he was paid in dollars, which meant that by mid-1923, his industrial empire was worth more than the entire German economy. Hitler's seizure of power (Machtergreifung) brought the republic to an end. When he refused, Prince Max of Baden simply announced that he had done so and frantically attempted to establish a regency under another member of the House of Hohenzollern. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm. Despite the change in the form of government, the official name of the state remained the same as it had been during the German Empire. This Act would, and did, lead Hitler and the NSDAP toward his goal of unfettered dictatorial powers.[61]. Because of the Nazis' narrow majority in the Reichstag, Centre's support was necessary to receive the required two-thirds majority vote. [52] Additional difficulties were caused by the different deflationary policies pursued by Brüning and the Reichsbank, Germany's central bank. [citation needed], The strike prevented some goods from being produced, but one industrialist, Hugo Stinnes, was able to create a vast empire out of bankrupt companies. The greater blow to Germans however was that they were forced to give up the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. Reparation payments were resumed, and the Ruhr was returned to Germany under the Locarno Treaties, which defined the borders between Germany, France, and Belgium. Ludendorff and Hitler declared that the Weimar government was deposed and that they were planning to take control of Munich the following day. The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design. It went into effect the following day, 24 March. By late 1931, the conservative movement was dead and Hindenburg and the Reichswehr had begun to contemplate dropping Brüning in favour of accommodating Hugenberg and Hitler. Strikes were called, and passive resistance was encouraged. However, right-wing state criminals were not permanently deterred from their activities, and the lenient sentences they were given by judges influenced by imperial conservatism were a contributing factor. It amounted to German capitulation, without any concessions by the Allies; the naval blockade would continue until complete peace terms were agreed. La République de Weimar est le nom donné par les historiens à la république fédérale située en Allemagne existant de 1918 à 1933.. Fondation [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. [34], Since striking workers were paid benefits by the state, much additional currency was printed, fuelling a period of hyperinflation. Exporter la notice de ce article. The achievements and signs of this movement were mostly done away with after its downfall and the political reaction. From 1918 to 1923, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with contending paramilitaries) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The rationale behind exterminating the population of swine was to decrease the use of potatoes and turnips for animal consumption, transitioning all foods toward human consumption. These strikes lasted eight months, further damaging both the economy and society. Examples of the new architecture include the Bauhaus Building by Gropius, Grosses Schauspielhaus, and the Einstein Tower.

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